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Demineralisation is the Process of removing the mineral salts from water by ion-exchange. Impurities that remains dissolved in water dissociate to form positive and negative charged particles known as ions. These impurities or compounds are called electrolytes. Generally, all natural water has electrolytes in varying concentrations. An ion-exchange vessel holds ion-exchange resin of the required type through which water is allowed to pass. The selective ions in the water are exchanged with ions or radicals loosely held by the resin. In this way, the water is passed through several vessels or a mixed bed vessel so that both positive and negative ions are removed and water is demineralised.
Process Water Production
Parallel flow (co-current) Regeneration Technique The exchange resin is loaded under down -stream conditions only.
Fixed bed (counter-current) Counter Flow Process The Exchange resin is loaded under down-stream and regenerated under up-stream conditions with dynamic back pressure created with water or air.
Floating Bed / counter flow process The regeneration is performed under down-stream flow, without hydraulic problems. The resin is loaded up-stream flow, so that the bed is kept floating.
Automatic Regeneration The regeneration procedure (back-wash, regen-eration & rinse) is automatically controlled, implying reduced operating costs. To control the regeneration cycle either of the following systems can be used:
a) Relay based interlock and operation sequence logic.
b) PLC based interlock and operation sequence logic.